The methodological stratum of the General Theory of Information (GTI) studies basic principles of information theory and information technology.
In other words, empirically, it is possible to speak only about information (or a portion of information) for a system. This principle separates local and global approaches to information definition, i.e., in what context information is defined.
The Locality Principle explicates an important property of information, but says nothing what information is. The essence of information is described by the second ontological principle, which has several forms.
Thus, we may understand information in a broad sense as a capacity (ability or potency) of things, both material and abstract, to change other things. Information exists in the form of portions of information.
Information in a proper sense is defined of structural infological systems. In essence, any subsystem of a system may be considered as its infological system. However, information in a strict sense acts on structural infological systems where an infological system is structural if all its elements are structures. For example, systems of knowledge are structures.
Elements from IF(R) are called infological elements.
An infological system IF(R) of the system R is called cognitive if IF(R) contains (stores) elements or constituents of cognition, such as knowledge, data, ideas, fantasies, abstractions, beliefs, etc. A cognitive infological system of a system R is denoted by CIF(R) and is related to cognitive information.
The substance C that is a carrier of the portion of information I is called the physical, or material, carrier ofI.
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Burgin, Mark (Feb/2012)
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