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 Incorporated contributions

 Usage domain
Communication science, Information theory
Concept / Problem
 German Falschinformation
[Guidelines for the editor
1) This text between brackets must be substituted by the article approved by the editor.
2) The upper box of metadata must be actualized (entries, integrated in the current wording of the article; usage domain(s) of the voice, particularly the ones currently treated in the article; type -conpept, metaphor, theory, theorem, principle, discipline, resource, problem-; equivalent terms in French and German).
3) For the bibliographic references the normalized method author-year will be applied. E.g.
...As stated by Bateson (1973)...
...As proven (Turing 1936)...
..."is requisite to make an image?" (Peirce 1867: p. 5)..
The referred documents must be compiled in the reference section following the exemplified normalized format.
4) If the article is long (>1 p) it should be subdivided in numbered sections (including an initial summary section)]
  • AUTHOR, N. (year). “article title”. Magazine, Vol. xx, pp. yy–zz.
  • AUTHOR, N. (year). Book title. Edition place: editor.
  • AUTHOR, N. (year). Web page title. [Online]. Edition place: Responsible organism. <page url>. [Consulted: consulting dd/mm/yy].
New entry. For doing a new entry: (1) the user must be identified as an authorized user(to this end, the "sign inlink at the page bottom left can be followed). (2) After being identified, press the "edit page" button at he upper right corner. (3) Being in edition mode, substitute -under this blue paragraph- "name" by the authors' names, "date" by the date in which the text is entered; and the following line by the proposed text. At the bottom of the entry, the references -used in the proposed text- must be given using the normalized format. (4) To finish, press the "save" button at the upper right corner.
The entry will be reviewed by the editor and -at least- another peer, and subsequently articulated in the article if elected.
Lionel Mattes (19.06.2020, contribution elaborated within the Seminar "A Journey through Philosophy and Information" facilitated by J.M.Díaz at the Hochschule München)


Misinformation is information that does not comply with the facts. To distinguish it from disinformation -> [Disinformation] it must be stated that the source where misinformation originates from does not intentionally spread that wrong information. Predominantly it is a lack of proofed facts which are leading to the appearance and contribution of misinformation. The current structure of the internet and especially social media delivers a platform, open to any person who intends to spread information. As a result so called “Fake News” occur and more importantly are spread in a rapid speed. As stated by Lynch: “Fake news spread online is a clear danger to democratic politics.”.


  • Lynch M. (2019). Public Talk: Fake News and the Politics of Truth [Online] Faculty of Philosophy University of Oxford: Prof. Micheal Lynch. <>. [Consulted: 15.06.2020]
  • Lovari A. (2019). Social media in disaster communication: A case study of strategies, barriers, and ethical implications [Online] Wiley Online Library: Alessandri Lovari, Shannon A. Bowen <> [Consulted: 15.06.2020]

Incorporated entries

Whenever an entry is integrated in the article (left column) the corresponding entry is reflected in this section.