Holographic principle

Díaz Nafría, José María  jnafria@uax.es
 Incorporated contributions
Díaz (09/01/2009)
 Usage domain
theoretical physics
concept, theory
principe holographique
 German Holografisches Prinzip
This principle, suggested by Gerard’t Hooft in 1993 and developed by Leonard Susskind (1997), points out that the information contained in a volume can be represented by information over its bounding surface.


Since there is a (quantum) limit in the entropy by surface unit (for every four Planck areas there is at most one degree of freedom –or a entropy unit corresponding to a Boltzman constant): the maximum entropy contained in a volume bounded by a surface of area A (measured in Plank areas) is A/4, which is named holographic bound.


The holographic principle is related to the “generalized second law” [of thermondynamics], proposed by Bekenstein, stating that “the sum of black hole entropies and the ordinary entropy outside the black holes cannot decrease” (Bekenstein 2003).


By extension of the holographic principle, Bekenstein suggests that if the physics of our real universe (four-dimensional) were holographic, there would be an arbitrary set of physical laws to be applied on some three-dimensional bound of the space-time (i.e. the horizon of events).

  • BEKENSTEIN, J. D. (2003). “Information in the Holographic Universe”. Scientific American Magazine289(2), 58-65. 
  • SUSSKIND, Leonard (1997). "Black holes and the information paradox". Scientific American, Special Issue “The edge of physics”, April 1997, 52-57.
  • BOUSSO, R. (2002). "The holographic principle", en Reviews of Modern Physics, 74, 825–874.
New entry. Before doing a new entry, please, copy this line and the following ones and paste them at the column bottom. Next fill out the fields: 'name', 'date' and 'text', and delete this upper blue paragraph.
Name (date)
[Entry text]

Incorporated entries
J.M. Díaz (09/01/2009)
[It corresponds with the first version of the article, which is now showed in the left column]