Information as heterogeneity

 
 Editor
Igor Gurevich 
iggurevich@gmail.com
 Incorporated contributions
Gurevich, I. (01/2011) 
 Usage domain
transdisciplinary, physics of information, science of information
 Type
concept 
 French
information comme hétérogénéité
 German Information als Heterogenität
 

[The review of this first version of the article is pending]

[Some editor comments using the letter format of this text are inserted within the text, indicating changes that should be done by authors. After making the corresponding changes the comments shall be eliminated]

Information is heterogeneity of any nature, stable for some definite time. If we want to create “Science of Information” we must use single, unified, unique definition of “information” concept. The rationale of this single definition of information can be based on the laws of development (evolution) of the Universe. About 10 billion years ago there was no life in the Universe. There was information only in the form of physical heterogeneity. Its existence does not depend on Existence of Observer. Heterogeneity (elementary particles, atoms, molecules, etc) possess certain information (and physical) characteristics, properties (information properties of the first order), in particular they contain certain volume of information. Interaction of heterogeneities leads to change of their information characteristics. Observer appeared (very approximately) some billion years ago and gave new properties (information properties of the second order) to information in the form biological – heterogeneity, created by life  – Perception (3.8 billion years ago), Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking (200 million years ago), Imagination, Mind, Intelligence, Knowledge, Cognition, Representation, Content, Meaning, Value. ... (some million years ago), …  The new synthetic discipline which is uniting the physicist and information theory was given the name «Physical Informatics». Physical Informatics is Science of modern Information in Physical and Chemical Systems, including Quantum Informatics, and is the basis of Informatics of the Living Systems. Are enumerated the main questions of physical Informatics, investigated by Igor Gurevich. Using the definition of information, properties of information; we can create science of information.

Contents

  1. Science of Information
  2. Definition of the “information” concept
  3. Information properties of the first order
  4. Information properties of the second order
  5. Information properties of the first order impose fundamental restrictions on information characteristics of the second level
  6. Set of systematic definitions of information
  7. The laws of the Universe and information
  8. Some classes of homogeneities and heterogeneities
  9. Some examples.
  10. Physical Informatics
  11. Conclusion

1. Science of Information

D. Doucette (2010) has defined “Science of Information”: “In establishing the new evolved information discipline, there should be some initial awareness that information is a part of all elements, systems, conditions and is therefore also an integral part of the other individual disciplines and sciences. In studying information phenomena, it is essential to look beyond the limitations of how human use and perceive information, or even how living organisms' uses information. It is proposed that information is a continuous evolving process that exists in some simple to complex form in every stage of development across all science and academia domains as well as being a significant part of everything that exists. Information is a trigger mechanism, emphasis and nutrient for not only information activities but also all physical biological elements, systems and activities”.

2. Definition of the “information” concept

If we want to create “Science of Information” we must use single, unified, unique definition of the “information” concept. 

I suggested this definition (1989). “Information is heterogeneity, stable for some definite time”. Regardless of the nature of heterogeneity, would be it letters, words, phrases or - elementary particles, atoms, molecules, or - people, groups, societies, etc.

Let us give definitions of homogeneity and heterogeneity (Gurevich, 2009, 2010). Consider a set of elements. If the elements are the same, identical (not different each from other), then the set is homogeneous. If the elements are not the same, no identical (different each from other), then the set is no homogeneous. 

The measure of the degree of heterogeneity or information is Shannon's information entropy and other information characteristics (information divergence, joint entropy, communication information).

The proposed definition and the Shannon information entropy (1948) and other information characteristics can describe information (heterogeneity) of any nature.

This table describes the possible information types and their corresponding types of heterogeneity.

Table 1

Type of information  Time of existence of the heterogeneity  Type of heterogeneity 
Classical information  Time of existence of the heterogeneity is infinite 
tn=¥
This is absolutely stable heterogeneity 
Macroinformation
(Chernavsky, 2004)
 
Time of existence of the heterogeneity is not less than the time of existence of the system
tts
This is essentially stable heterogeneity 
Information  Time of existence of the heterogeneity is not less than the time of existence of the system, but more than the time course of processes in the system
tn1 £ t£ ts
 
This is stable heterogeneity 
Microinformation 
(Chernavsky, 2004)
Time of existence of the heterogeneity is essentially less than the time of existence of the system 
ttn1
This is unstable heterogeneity 

  t: the time of existence of the system,

  tn : the time of existence of the heterogeneity,

  tn1 : the time course of processes in the system.

Note 1In 1968 Ursul A.D. (Ursul, 1968).based on philosophical considerations, gave a definition of information, that is close to ours. I learned about it recently (late 2010) when I read the second edition of Ursul's book. Next, I cite references to the second edition of Ursul's book (Ursul, 2010).

«… first, information is linked to a variety, distinction, secondly, with reflexion. According to it information can be spotted in the general case as the reflexion variety. Information is a variety which one object contains about other object (in the course of their interaction)... But information can be considered and as variety which is as though effect of reflexion by the object itself, i.e. self-reflexions. … Information expresses property of a substance which is general. … Concept of information is information reflexion as objective-real property of objects not dependent on the subject lifeless and wildlife, a society, and property of knowledge, thinking …, thus, is proper both to material, and ideal. It is applicable and to the substance performance, and to the consciousness performance. If objective information can be considered as property of substance the ideal, subjective information is reflexion of objective, material information ». p. 228-229.

«Information theory methods will study properties of space and time, than basically physical theories (for example, A. Einstein’s special and common relativity theories) till now were engaged. So, the physicist and information theory interpenetrate each other, that in general carries on to making of two main synthetic disciplines - special applied information theory (and most likely, of some its branches - thermodynamic, quantum) and the informational physics» p. 92-93.

«V.M. Glushkov characterises the information as heterogeneity in energy distribution (or substances) in space and in time … 

The information exists so far as there are the material bodies and, therefore, the heterogeneities created by it». P. 67. «Heterogeneity is other expression of variety». P. 68.

Note 1: Heterogeneities can be used for storage of information (preferably the fermions) and transmission (preferably the bosons) (Gurevich , 2007, 2009). 

Note 2: Fluctuations - random deviations from the mean values of physical quantities characterizing the system from a large number of particles caused by thermal motion of particles or quantum-mechanical effects, are not stable some time, and therefore in fixed systems do not carry information. In non-stationary systems (eg, in the universe), the fluctuations can generate information.

Note 3: Should be noted that the author suggested that not only the more general definition of information, but also the most simple definition of information. He uses only one of the most general mathematical concepts - the notion of set.

3. Information properties of the first order

The information (heterogeneity) is an objective reality. 

The existence of information (heterogeneity) does not depend on availability of observer. 

Heterogeneity (elementary particles, atoms, molecules, …) possess certain information characteristics, properties (information properties of the first order), in particular they contains certain volume of the information. 

Interaction of heterogeneities leads to a change their information characteristics.

4. Information properties of the second order

Existence of Observer (Díaz Nafría and Pérez-Montoro, 2010) can give (heterogeneity) new properties to information (information property of the second order) – Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking, Imagination, Mind, Intelligence, Knowledge, Cognition, Representation, Content, Meaning, Value, etc.

Observer is forming a hierarchy of information properties of the following orders.

The Observer:

Perceives, locates, remembers the information (heterogeneity).

Generates system of the standards (concepts) describing the information (heterogeneity). 

Perceives the information (heterogeneity) within the limits of the generated system of standards (concepts).

Generates language of the description of the information (heterogeneities).

Describes the information (heterogeneity). Classifies the information (heterogeneity).

Generates base of the information (heterogeneity) (knowledge base).

Generates the new information (heterogeneity).

Make the information actual (within the limits of the possibilities).

At work with the information (heterogeneities) Observer are forming mind, intelligence. 

The level of mind, intellect of the Observer is defined by volume processed (stored) information and productivity (speed) of work with the information.

Observer may not notice or ignore availability of the information (heterogeneity). 

In the article (Florio, [indicate year]) described a possible scheme of building information properties of the second order on the basis of information properties of the first order.

Now Observer is forming a hierarchy of information properties following orders.

5. Information properties of the first order impose fundamental restrictions on information characteristics of the second level

Information properties of the first level impose fundamental restrictions on information characteristics of the second level: restrictions on a memory size and productivity of information systems, perception of the natural (physical, chemical and biological) systems of the Observer.

Estimates the volume of information in the atoms, amino acids, nitrogenous bases, differential information capacity of usual matter, are determine the fundamental limits on information capacity storage devices. Differential capacity information of storage devices, constructed based on combinations of atoms, does not exceed  » 10-25 bits/kg, and the information capacity of the storage mass 1kg   bits and it can be enhanced with respect to the current level of no more than » 1011 times. 

Differential information capacity of storage devices, built on the basis of atoms does not exceed » 10-28 bits/kg, and the information capacity of the storage mass 1kg  bits, and it can be increased by no more than 1014  times. 

The difference between the energies of the basis states of the hydrogen atom, considered as a q-bit, impose fundamental limitations on the speed of computing devices. The number of operations you is satisfied by a hydrogen atom, a q-bit, limited

operations per second. Restrictions 1028 bit/Kg, £ 1.5 1012 op/s. You can add a number of fundamental natural limits, including the speed of light, the elementary charge, Planck’s time, ... (Gurevich, 2010).

Observational limits and perception (Díaz Nafría & Pérez-Montoro, 2010). The following fundamental conclusions can be forward extracted, which concern what can be known about the object causing an observed wave phenomenon: The number of details to be found in the environment due to the presence of the object is finite. Such number depends on the surface bounding the object and not on its volume. The volumetric distribution of an object can not be known only based on its manifestations on the environment. The description of the object that can be achieved corresponds to a projection of the inner inhomogeneities over a bounding surface. These four conclusions establish fundamental limits to the observation problem, not attached to the specificity of our organs of animal or human sensibility, but to the differences that can merely be found in the environment and the maximal knowledge that could be derived concerning the object causing these differences.

6. Set of systematic definitions of information

«Because the concept of information is so complicated, we may have to have a set of systematic definitions of information: ontological information, epistemological information and so on in good order; instead of seeking only one single definition of information» (Y. X. Zhong, e-mail, January 12, 2011 [Bibliographical references should be referred to public documents using ISO reference standards]).

I can not agree with this view. If we use different definitions of information we will receive assessments, results that can not be compared, which is impossible to generalize.

7. The laws of development (evolution) of the Universe and information

The rationale of a single definition of information can be based on the laws of development (evolution) of the Universe (Universe, 2011).

According to modern concepts, the observed universe today originated 13,7 ± 0,13 billion years ago from some initial singular state with enormous temperature and density and has since continuously expanded and cooled. 

13,7 +1 E (-6) s - Hadron era (fusion of quarks into hadrons). 

13,7 +1 E (-4) s - Lepton era (leptons and photons, electrons and neutrinos with their antiparticles, as well as protons and neutrons). 

13.7 + 200 s - starts the synthesis of deuterium, helium and lithium. The temperature drops to values at which nucleosynthesis is more impossible, and the chemical substance of chemical composition remains unchanged until the birth of the first stars. 

13.7 + 200 s - 4.6 billion years –forms large-scale structure of the Universe. 

The formation of the solar system began about 4.6 billion years ago with the gravitational collapse of a small part of a giant interstellar molecular clouds. Much of the substance turns out to be, in the gravitational center of the collapse with the subsequent formation of stars - the Sun.

The formation of the Earth began about 4.5 billion years ago, with the following (very approximate) date:

  • 3.8 billion years ago there were first not nuclear organisms (prokaryotes) had appeared; 
  • 3 billion years ago there were the first organisms capable of photosynthesis;
  • 2 billion years ago appeared the first cells with the nucleus (eukaryotes);
  • 1 billion years ago appeared the first multicellular organisms;
  • 500 million years of fish and proto amphibians;
  • 475 million years of terrestrial plants;
  • 400 million years of insects and seeds;
  • 360 million years ago appeared the first amphibians;
  • 300 million years ago there were first reptiles;
  • 200 million years ago appeared the first mammals;
  • 150 million years ago appeared the first bird;
  • 2,5 million years ago came the genus Homo;
  • 200 thousand years ago people acquired a modern look.

Thus, about 10 billion years ago there was no life in the Universe. There was information only in the form of physical heterogeneity. Its existence does not depend on Existence of Observer. Heterogeneity (elementary particles, atoms, molecules, …) possess certain information (and physical) characteristics, properties (information properties of the first order), in particular they contain certain volume of information. Interaction of heterogeneities leads to change of their information characteristics.

Observer appeared (very approximately) some billion years ago and gave to information (heterogeneity) new properties (information properties of the second order) – Perception (3.8 billion years ago), Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking (200 million years ago), Imagination, Mind, Intelligence, Knowledge, Cognition, Representation, Content, Meaning, Value. ... (some million years ago), etc. See table 2. 

Table 2. Time, Events in the Universe life, Information properties of the first and the second order

Years ago

Events in the Universe life

Information properties of the first order

Information properties of the second order

13.7 billion

Big bang

There is information only in the form of physical heterogeneity

No

13.7 billion +

10E9^(-6) sec

Hadrons era (fusion of quarks into hadrons)

There is information only in the form of physical heterogeneity

No

13.7 billion +

10E9^(-4) sec

Lepton era (leptons and photons, electrons and neutrinos with their antiparticles)

There is information only in the form of physical heterogeneity

No

13.7 billion +

200 sec-

Starts the synthesis of deuterium, helium and lithium. The temperature drops to values at which nucleosynthesis is more impossible, and the chemical substance chemical composition remains unchanged until the birth of the first stars.

There is information only in the form of physical heterogeneity

No

From 13.7 billion +

200 sec to-13.7 billion +

4.6 billion

Forming large-scale structure of the Universe

There is information only in the form of physical and chemical heterogeneity

No

4.6 billion

The solar system was formed

There is information only in the form of physical and chemical heterogeneity

No

4.5 billion

The earth was formed

There is information only in the form of physical and chemical heterogeneity

No

3.8 billion

Life originated. The first not nuclear organisms (prokaryotes) appeared

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception

2 billion

The first cells with the nucleus (eukaryotes) appeared

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception

1 billion

The multicellular organisms appeared

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation).

500 million

The fish and the proto amphibians appeared

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking.

475 million

The terrestrial plants appeared

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking.

400 million

The insects and the seeds appeared

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking.

360 million

The amphibians appeared

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking.

300 million

There were first reptiles

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking.

200 million

The first mammals had appeared

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking.

150 million

The first birds appeared

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking.

2.5 million

The genus homo came

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking.

200 thousand

People acquired a modern look

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking, Mind.

Several thousand

A science formed

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking, Imagination, Mind, Intelligence, Knowledge, Cognition, Representation, Content, Meaning, Value. ...

Now

 

There is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity. Physical Informatics formed.

Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking, Imagination, Mind, Intelligence, Knowledge, Cognition, Representation, Content, Meaning, Value. ...

Observer is forming a hierarchy of information properties of the following orders.

Since 3.8 billion years ago to the present time information has material basis (it is information in the form of physical, chemical and biological heterogeneity) and information as the product of life (Perception, Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking, Imagination, Mind, Intelligence, Knowledge, Cognition, Representation, Content, Meaning, Value. ...).
Information properties of the second order at the period from 3,8 to 1,0 billion years (life originated. The first not nuclear organisms (prokaryotes) appeared. The first cells with the nucleus (eukaryotes) appeared) should be specified with the development of microbiology of the Universe.

8. Some classes of homogeneities and heterogeneities

Natural

  • Inorganic, including physical
  • biological
  • environmental
  • other

Artificial

  • material
  • abstract (ideal)
  • abstract material
  • Mixed
  • socio-technological
  • organizational and technical
  • socio-economic
  • other

9. Some examples.

Physical homogeneities

  • Space
  • Time
  • Vacuum

The hierarchy of physical heterogeneities

  • Gauge fields
  • Fundamental particles
  • Elementary Particles
  • Atoms
  • Molecule
  • Plasma
  • Gases
  • Liquid
  • Solids (crystals)
  • Stars
  • Galaxy
  • Universe

The hierarchy of geological heterogeneities

  • Land
  • Kernel
  • Mantle
  • Crust
  • Platforms
  • Oceans and seas
  • Continents
  • Mountains
  • Plain
  • Depression
  • Rocks
  • Minerals

linguistic  homogeneities

The text of the gaps, the same symbols

Hierarchy linguistic heterogeneities

  • Letters
  • Words
  • Offers
  • Lyrics
  • Books
  • Library

Technical homogeneities as a background scene

Elements of the same type

Hierarchy of technical heterogeneities

  • Element
  • Communications
  • Subsystem
  • System
  • Module
  • Block
  • Device
  • Product
  • Complex
  • Network
  • Module
  • Block
  • Subroutine
  • Program
  • Complex
  • Network

Biological homogeneities

Chromosomes in the cells of one organism

Hierarchy of biological heterogeneities

  • Amino acid
  • Protein
  • Nucleotides
  • DNA
  • RNA
  • Cell
  • Cytozoon
  • Virus
  • Bacterium
  • Multicellular organism
  • Population

Socio-economic homogeneity

Money

The hierarchy of socio-economic heterogeneity

  • Individual
  • Family
  • Group
  • Nation
  • Production unit
  • Industry sector
  • National economy
  • Country
  • Civilization

Each level of the hierarchy of heterogeneity of any type contains various elements. At each level of the hierarchy of heterogeneities can determine the probability of realization of each element (in the discrete case) and the distribution function of the density distribution of elements (in the continuous case).

10. Physical Informatics

The new synthetic discipline which is uniting the physicist and information theory was given the name «Physical Informatics».

Let’s enumerate the main questions of physical Informatics, which the author researched. 

Information methods of research the physical systems. The laws of informatics.

Evaluation of information entropy, information divergence, a joint information entropy, information, communication, differential data capacity of physical, chemical and biological systems.

Estimates of volume of information in the physical, chemical and biological systems (fundamental and elementary particles, atoms, molecules, gases, liquids, solids, stars, black holes ,..., RNA, DNA, cells, viruses, organisms, ..., a man, the Universe).

The laws of physics as a consequence of the laws of informatics.

Calculations of the physical processes (eg, particle decay, nuclear reactions).

Characteristics and properties of information interaction of physical systems.

Informational constraints on the formation, development, interconversion of the fundamental and elementary particles, atoms, molecules, gases, liquids, solids, stars, black holes ,..., RNA, DNA, cells, viruses, organisms, ...

Fundamental limitations on memory capacity and productivity of information systems.

The volume of information that determines the possibility of creation and development of the Universe. The mass of the initial heterogeneity of the Universe.

Expansion of the Universe - the cause and source of information  in the Universe (the structure of the Universe, the cosmological objects, including stellar systems, civilizations, Mind, Intelligence, Knowledge, Cognition).

Models and methods of management of the Universe. Management of development of the Universe from within. The need for external management for expansion,  development of the Universe?

The need for classical objects, classical logic, classical information for the existence and understanding the Universe.

Life as an effective way to formation of the classical information in the Universe.

Information characteristics of civilizations in the Universe. Possible influence of civilizations on expansion,  development  of the Universe. Cognition of civilization the Universe . 

Characteristics of the minimal subject of knowledge.

Methods and tools for the compact of submission of the knowledge. Methods and means of preserving the accumulated of civilization knowledge .

Information foundations of the theory of quantum gravity, "Theory of everything".

Conclusions

Information is heterogeneity of any nature, stable for some definite time. The rationale of this single definition of information can be based on the laws of development (evolution) of the Universe.

About 10 billion years ago there was no life in the Universe. There was information only in the form of physical heterogeneity. Its existence does not depend on Existence of Observer. Heterogeneity (elementary particles, atoms, molecules, …) possess certain information (and physical) characteristics, properties (information properties of the first order), in particular they contain certain volume of information. Interaction of heterogeneities leads to change of their information characteristics.

Observer appeared (very approximately) some billion years ago and gave new properties (information properties of the second order) to information in the form biological – heterogeneity, created by life  – Perception (3.8 billion years ago), Memory, Formation (Creation), Consciousness, Thinking (200 million years ago), Imagination, Mind, Intelligence, Knowledge, Cognition, Representation, Content, Meaning, Value. ... (some million years ago), … 

Now Observer is forming a hierarchy of information properties of the following orders.

The new synthetic discipline which is uniting the physicist and information theory was given the name «Physical Informatics».

Using the definition of information, properties of information resulted from the article; we can create science of information.


Acknowledgement: The author thanks Professor K. Kolin for interest in this area of work and support. I thank José María Díaz Nafría and members of Science Advisory Board for giving me the opportunity for international cooperation within Domus BITae and for their help. 

 
References
  • CHERNAVSKII, DS (2004). Synergetics and Information: dynamic information theory [In Russian]. Moscow: Editorial URSS. – 288 p.
  • DOUCETTE, D. (2010). “Challenges for Those Constructing a Science of In-formation as an Evolving Unique Discipline”. Fourth International Conference on the Foundations of Information Science: Towards a new science of information (FIS 2010), Beijing, China, 21-24 August 2010.
  • FLORIO, Antonio. ([year required]The semantic notion of information in naturalized epistemology and behaviour. Institute for Logic, Cognition, Language and Information, University of Basque Country, Donostia. [type of publication?]
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  • SHANNON, C.E. (1948). A Mathematical Theory of Communication. Bell System Technical Journal. Т. 27. pp. 379-423, 623–656. 
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  • ZHONG Y. X. e-mail, January 12, 2011 [Bibliographical references should be referred to public documents using ISO reference standards]
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