Requena, Carmen  c.requena@unileon.es
 Incorporated contributions
Requena (12/2009)
 Usage domain
psicology, evolution
 German Emotion

“Do we cry because we are sad, or rather are we sad because we cry?”  W. James

Before answering please consider the following simple experiment. In any moment you do feel sad, take a pencil and bite ir for a couple of minutes. You eventually find yourself then smiling and finishing your sad state. Now answer the previous question.

Emotion is the affective tone with which organisms respond to their circumstances. Three research lines are to be highlighted in the study of emotion, with respective antecedents in Charles Darwin,  William James  and Sigmund Freud. 

Emotions arise from filogenetically selected behaviours. It may happen that obsolete conducts remain, even if they are no longer fit to present demands. For example, many people are still afraid of snakes, while it is so unprobable to find any wild snake in daily life. It would be more adequate for us to be afraid of plugs, hobs or lifts, since they really endanger our lifes.

Even if it is common to undistinctively talk about emotion and feeling, there are differences between them, particularly as to their duration. Emotion takes about miliseconds, while feelings are more durable and a later result in the phylogeny of our brain. Emotions are located in the limbical system while feelings in the orbito ventral area.

  • BLANCHARD-FIELDS, F. (2005). Introduction to the Special Section on Emotion-Cognition Interactions and the Aging Mind. Psychology and Aging (vol. 20, núm. 4, págs. 539-541).
  • CHARLES, S.T. & CARSTENSEN, L.L. (2010). Social and emotional aging. In S. Fiske and S. Taylor (Eds). Annual Review of Psychology. Vol. 61., 383-409. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.100448 
  • DARWIN, Ch. (1984). La expresión de las emociones en los animales y en el hombre. Madrid: Alianza Editorial.
  • EKMAN, P.; FRIESEN, W.V. (1975). Unmasking the Face. A Guide to recognizing emotions from facial clues. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Englewood Cliffs.
  • EKMAN, P.; FRIESEN, W.V.; HAGER, J.C. (2002). The new Facial Action Coding System (FACS).
  • JAMES W. 1884. What is an emotion? Mind 9: 188-205.
  • ZACKS, R.T.; HASHER, L.; LI, K.Z.H. (2000). Human memory. In: T. A. Salthouse; F.I.M. Craik (eds.). Handbook of aging and cognition (2nd ed., pp. 293–357). Mahwah: Erlbaum.
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Name (date)

[Entry text]

Incorporated entries
Carmen Requena (dec/2009)
[It correspond with the article directly edited by the editor/author in the left column]

Entries under work
Vekić Marko (Dec 2019, contribution elaborated within the Seminar "A Journey through Philosophy and Information" facilitated by J.M.Díaz at the Hochschule München) 

(1) The comments of the facilitator will be edited using this style, brackets, 8 pt, color change to violet. These will be introduced in between your own text to discuss and further co-elaborate the content. Whenever the authors consider to have addressed the issue, they can simply remove the comment
(2) Simple corrections, corresponding to quite obvious missteps or misalignment with editorial style guidelines, are directly corrected, marking the involved characters in red in order to let the author know what was changed. The authors can turn it into black if they agree upon] 

NOTE of the AUTHOR (in interaction with the facilitator and colleagues): these are edited using this style, no-brackets, 8 pt, this color. 

(1) The structure should be improved: better connection between the parts, paragraphs broken down into sections.
(2) Try to offer better justifications for your statements. Either justifications or the source of the propositions held, usually, an author.
(3) Let me give you a couple of hints: 
(a) If you remind the definition I gave you for information, as proposed by the cybernetician Gregory Bateson: "Information is a difference that makes a difference". In the human the differences are provided by the senses. There are myriads of sensory impulses, but they make a difference in human awareness depending on the emotional complex. Isn't it? Furthermore, how an information change our knowledge? What is the role of emotion in this process?
(b) I strongly recommend you to read the article Emotion from the Standford Encyclopedia of Philosophy https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/emotion/
(4) Review the readability in order to provide a more formal text, easy to understand by general audiences.]

Abstract: The theme of this essay is going to be the word “emotion”. It will be broken down into two perspectives. The first part will discuss the relation that emotion has with information and knowledge. The second part will deal with the work of Bettina Hitzer, who tried to show the recent scientific history and how scientists tried to approach to discussing emotions in different ways.  [Regarding the abstract I wish making some remarks: (i) You should write the abstract when you have already concluded the entry. It is not needed to state that the purpose of this contribution intends to clarify what emotion is. That's intrinsic to any contribution of the glossariumBITri.  (ii) Don't calle it essay. The nature of the writing is giving by the context, namely the glossariumBITri. (iii) According to the plan stated you may break down the article in several sections. That's what I meant when I said you should articulate your entry]

Emotion could be described easily as a phenomenon which was adapted to the genetics of a human being, in the process of evolution, just to express their feelings about a certain situation  ["Feeling" is another concept worth to be defined and properly linked to data, information, knowledge. What do you think?... But I have question regarding this beginning of your entry to clarify what "emotion": Why do you start with the evolutionary perspective, stating that by that means it can be easily described, but right after you justify that it is actually not enough to grasp its complexity? Maybe you could start saying something like "From an evolutionary perspective..."]. Formulated that way it seems to be an expression that is quite simple to understand. 

But does someone know what “Emotion” really stands for if looking at it from an evolutionary point of view? [I wouldn't separate this sentence into another paragraph since it's in clear conjunction with the previous one. On the other hand, I think you can express it better... maybe something like "But is the evolutionary point of view enough to grasp the breadth of what "emotion" stands for?". I would also change somehow the following sentences. By the way, instead of  "word origin" you may speak of etymology.]

Maybe that way it is possible, to understand a part that is needed to grasp the whole meaning of it. To solve the words origin and for what the expression “Emotion” stands for, it must be analysed on different levels.

In order to analyse this word, the author will break it down in different parts. The first step of it is going to discuss the relations that interact with emotions. 

Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy tried to describe information’s from different angels [angles are allegedly heaven beings ;)]. For example, in the Qualitative theory of Information the semantic information is described as following

“…as well-formed, meaningful and truthful data. Formal entropy-based definitions of information (Fisher, Shannon, Quantum, Kolmogorov) work on a more general level and do not necessarily measure information in meaningful truthful datasets, …. Semantic information is close to our everyday naive notion of information as something that is conveyed by true statements about the world.” (Pieter Andriaans, 2018) [The first part of the quotation is not the Quantitative Theory of Information, but rather Floridi's General Definition of Information "well-formed, meaningful and truthful data" (Floridi also has an article in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). As regards the deleted name, you may know that first names are not used in in-text citations, check APA style. Remember you need to add the full reference in the reference list using APA style]

In contrast to that, a Quantitative theory of Information would be for example the Hartley function [this is contradictory, previously you referred quantitative accounts, indeed Shannon's is based on Hartley],

“The amount of information we get when we select an element from a finite set S under uniform distribution is the logarithm of the cardinality of that set.” (Pieter Andriaans, 2018) [the following article of the glossariumBITri definition defines entropy or information amount which is based on Hartley's function: http://glossarium.bitrum.unileon.es/glossary/entropy-or-amount-of-information]

Analysing these two different definitions of Information shows, that Information is best described as something that is conveyed by true statements about the world [this statement is not justified].

As referred to in the article Knowledge In the index of glossariumBITri knowledge is described, according to the  the point of view of the classical epistemological model, knowledge is understood “The proposal of classical epistemology advocates a definition of knowledge from the notions of belief, truth value and justification (or argument). In this sense, a person A knows that P if and only if it fulfills the following three conditions: (a) A believes that P, (b) P is true and (c) is justified in believing that P.” [Because we are in the glossariumBITri we don't need to indicate glossariumBITri, and never the index because it doesn't contain any definition]

Therefore to speak of knowledge an individual needs to fulfill (a) & (b) & (c).

So, what is the relationship of those three terms emotion, information and knowledge?

They are co-dependent on each other and can’t exist without one another. In order to show your emotions on a certain aspect you must gather information. This information must be converted into knowledge and the emotions can act. Emotions can be shown then in a positive or negative way which is depending on the relation the individual has with the before gathered information and gained knowledge.

The following example was chosen by the author because it is a matter that concerns every individual and can give a hint on the verity of emotions how individuals can react on a certain matter. Music has always been in our everyday lives and has different types from classic, rock, hip-hop or funk. With different types always come varying preferations preferences and therefore various opinions [what is "opinion"? That's another concept worth clarifying, don't you think?]. Let’s take the “Beatles” that would be considered nowadays as old for the young generation. The older generation, which have been young in the time that the Beatles started their carrier mostly liked to listen to their songs. So, if they hear a song today, they would probably react with positive emotions listing to them. They would show their emotions with laughter, happiness or maybe a simple smile which shows to the other people surrounding them that they have a positive feeling about this matter. If an individual from a younger generation listens to the same song from the Beatles at the exact same time, he might react differently to it. The youth person could eater either react with antipathy which would show with anger or maybe discomfort, or he/she could react with positive emotions totoo. The significant knowledge about the old times when the Beatles started their carrier and where considered great artist is missing for the young person. That’s way he tries to compare to different knowledge than the older person [When you write a text intended to be published or formal, you shouldn't use contraction forms as "that's". You have use it in several places]. That doesn’t necessarily mean that the young person will not like it. If the young person is more into knower days [I suppose you mean more recent days] hip-hop with Travis Scoot, Kane West or Jay Z chances are that this person could not like this type of genre, but if the person is into classics and loves the way people used to live that includes the old music also, chances are high that this young person will also react with joy. [Now, how do we link it with knowledge and information?].


[List here the references used in the in-text quotations, using APA style. You can find several online resources to learn about APA style, for instance, the following website offer several resources to facilitate the utilisation of APA style: http://www.citationmachine.net/apa/cite-a-book, while here you can find a comprehensive guide to APA style: https://apastyle.apa.org/]